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Printing Press Business Plan

August 18, 2011

James,Brown Chigozie
Department of English and Literary Studies
University of Nigeria, Nsukka. CEDR 342

PART 1
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1 The following reports and recommendations relate to the proposal by F. G. BAK PRINTING PRESS to establish a printing press at Onitsha.
1.2 This project will need a start-up capital of N1, 600, 000.00, constituting N1, 100, 000.00 for fixed assets and N500, 000.00 for working capital.
1.3 It vision is to become printer and employer of choice.
1.4 This project is envisaged to be situated in Onitsha in order to have access to the market and also to capitalize on the city printed material increase.
1.5 A vast opportunity is available to annex in the city.
1.6 The financial projections show that the project will be financially stable as it progresses. By the end of he first year the expected earnings from production is N1, 718, 500 and this is expected to grow to N2, 576, 000 in the second year while by the end of our third working year the business will be realizing N5, 162, 500.
1.7 The competitive edge of the business is in it ability to minimize the cost of production and also to publish quality printed material. It has in mind to develop a business friendly enterprise where the customers interest is giving a maximum consideration
1.8 The profitable measures are shown below:
1.9
Year 1
(4 months) Year 2 Year 3

Profit after tax (34, 500) 511, 668 2, 848, 986
% return on turn over N/A
% return on equity N/A
% return on investment N/A
This project is highly recommendable, because judging from the above profitable measures; it shows that the project offers good investment benefits which is found technically feasible, financially viable and economically desirable.

PART 11
BACKGROUND
2.0 INTRODUCTION
This business plan outlines an operation offering a full range of printing services. The enterprise will improve efficiency through the use of Total Quality Management (TQM). Following is a description of the ways in which the companies will employ extensive use of strategic, operational, and financial planning, as well as ways they intend to incorporate TQM methods into their businesses. This summary highlights the key points of the business plan. F. G. BAK Printing Press will specialize in the production and marketing of printed materials.
The town for its establishment will be at New Market Road, Onitsha. The infrastructure consists of a large store, leased by the aforementioned company. This houses the following facilities:
• Printing processing lines,
• The designing section,
• Typesetting section.
About two thirds of the total production will be supplied to Onitsha Main Market. The other one third is exported to surrounding towns and cities particularly Enugu, Awka, Asaba and others. For each of these cities, F. G. BAK will have an exclusive agreement with a single distributor.
This new cooperation is expected to contribute substantially to the growth of revenues and profitability. Financial projections show F. G. BAK’s a sustainable growth of 30 per cent over the next three years. Net profits are expected to increase gradually to 15 per cent by the end of the third year.
2.1 VISION
To become the Printer and Employer of Choice
2.2 MISSION
F. G. BAK Printing Press will exceed customer expectations
2.3 OWNERSHIP
This is a partnership investment, owned and control by five persons.

2.4 LEGAL STATUS
F. G. BAK Printing Press has the impression to start commercial services as a cooperative investment, in such a way that it will register the business name with appropriate department at the Onitsha North Local Government.
2.5 LOCATION AND FACILITIES
The project will be situated at New Market Road, Onitsha, the commercial center of Anambra state. It will lease a large store where the operations will take place.

PART 111
MARKET
3.0 PRODUCTION/SERVICES
F. G. BAK Printing Press will offer full service typesetting and design and a wide range of printing options such as digital and offset printing.
3.1 SERVICE DESCRIPTION
3.1.0 TYPESETTING
This will prepare any printing projects. It will do typesetting and layout for all printing needs. Typesetting services will be used to edit our customer’s existing files or layout specific information for any sort of document prior to printing and to prepare any files for printing.
3.1.1 DESIGN
Graphic designing, we will provide such services as, creation of corporate identity; logo design; update of corporate look or logo; marketing ad layouts; design of brochures, marketing pieces, annual reports, and any other printed matter; creation of invitations or announcement etc.
3.1.2 PRINTING
Printers have only used offset printing for their production needs in catalog printing or magazine printing. We tend to offer new advance technology, a new printing solution-digital printing.
3.2 COSTING
The cost of printing depends on the major cost items, they are;
• Machine
• Colour
3.2.1 MACHINE
There are different machines used for running an impression, for instance, any bodies who want to produce a magazine or a newspaper will use the cord machine and not impression machines and the cost of these machines varies.
3.2.1 COLOUR
To run an impression, black is the major and the cost of using two colours will increase. Also the cost of running an impression with colour separation that is four colours differs from single and double colour.
3.3 MARKET DEMAND
F. G. BAK Printing Press will be situated at Onitsha which ultimately will be within reach of some progressing markets surrounding the city. The city is known to be a commercial centre and is industrially developing. Precisely, companies, schools, festivals, writers, political parties and campaigns, weddings etc will automatically create an avenue for the business to grow. There is the notion that printing presses does not deliver within time limit given to them. F. G. BAK has the intention to capitalize on that.
3.3.1 PROJECT ANNUAL DEMAND OF PRINTING, DESIGN AND TYPESETTING SERVICES IN ONITSHA AND ITS ENVIRONS (2010-2010)
With the growing rate of companies, schools, firms, increase in political parties in the country, churches, festivals, weddings, burials, etc the existing limited printing presses meet up to 45% of the demands of published works. Possibly, about 400 works are needed to be published daily within Onitsha and its environs. As the rate of the demand by the customers increases it is rational to expect comply from the printers. For instance, political parties in the country increased from 50 to 62 in the past four years; therefore it is not an exaggeration to say that production rate hovers around 2.5% to 3.0% possibly for about 5 years presently. It seems considerate to state that the demand for printing will at least grow at the rate of 0.5% for the next 3 years.
3.3.2 PROJECTED ANNUAL DEMAND FOR PRINTING PRESS SERVICES (2012-2014)
365 days = 1 year
400 works = a day
365 days × 400 works = 140, 000
140, 000 annually
Table 1: Projected Annual Demand for Printing Press Service in Onitsha and its Environs (2012-2014)
s/n Years Annual Growth Rate Projected demand
0 Base year (2011) 0.5% 140, 000
1 2012 0.5% 140, 700
2 2013 0.5% 141, 400
3 2014 0.5% 142, 100
Total 20% 564, 200
Average 0.5% 141, 050
This projected average annual demand for printing press services in Onitsha and its environs is about 141, 050 yearly. Therefore, it’s expected that this level of demand will subsist for the next years.

3.3.3 PROJECTED DEMAND-SUPPLY GAP OF PRINTING PRESS SERVICES IN ONITSHA AND ITS ENVIRONS
45% of the total demand figures of printing press services are met by the already established printing presses in Onitsha.
Table 2: Project Demand-Supply Gap of Printing Press Service
Adjustment Demand-Supply Gap
Estimated average annual demand
Less 45% of supplies by existing printing presses 141, 050

63, 473
Less 20% due to expansion of existing printing presses and establishment of new ones 77, 577

15, 515
Less 5% estimate error 62, 062
3, 105
Estimated demand-supply gap anticipated annual service of customers 58, 957
1, 475

This plan is to provide approximately 1, 475 printing press services yearly. This is 2.5% of the total demand-supply gap of printing press services. In other words, it is obvious that the business will not be out of service from the time of start-up.
PART IV
MARKET, CUSTOMERS AND COMPETITORS
4.0 MARKET ANALYSIS
Printing press has exciting business opportunities since there is a demand for it in Onitsha and its environs. There is an increase in population which is as a result of many people moving into the city due to its commercial growth.
F. G. BAK Printing Press is privileged to business opportunities because of the enormous printing press services available to them. The increase in demand for printing press services alongside literacy will help to boom the business.
Anticipated Customers
These are the list of the targeted customers;
• Schools, i.e. primary, secondary, and tertiary
• Political parties
• Churches
• Companies
• Firms
• Societies
• Organizations
• Government agencies
• Private individuals, etc

PART V
MARKET PLAN
We intend to price our services and products just below or equal to our competition. The goal is to accomplish this while maintaining superior service over our competitors. We can accomplish this through efficiency, company training sessions, and by concentrating on quality control.
We will emphasize our perceived competitive advantage of service, quality, and price, to penetrate the market. To accomplish this, our promotion plan will include:
5.0. PUBLIC RELATIONS
We intend to have periodic meetings and training sessions teaching employees how to communicate effectively with customers on the phone, and in person. One of our aims, in hopes of satisfying our customers, is to demonstrate alternative ways to do their printing. This should, in many cases, save them time and money.
5.1 ADVERTISING AND SALES INCENTIVES
We will develop a series of radio commercials that will be effective in exposing both companies to our market areas. We plan to have periodic promotions offering discounts or specials on various printing items (i.e. business cards, envelopes, letterheads, etc.). We will be able to determine what means of advertising will be most effective for our companies by utilizing these promotions at different intervals on various types of media.
5.2 SURVEYS
We will survey present customers and potential customers in an effort to find the weak and strong areas of our products and services. Through this survey, we should be able to gain valuable information giving us a competitive edge over our competitors.
5.3 PROMOTION STRATEGY
F. G. BAK Printing press will be a technology-driven business, exploring new developments in document production. The business will develop a reputation for thorough, innovative work in graphic design and takes pride in quality of the relationships it will forge with its clients. Not only will it design, typeset and print leaflets, booklets, flyers and any other literature needed by her customers, it will also liaise with printers on behalf of its clients in other to obtain competitive printing quotes. It will also advise its customers on the most effective, efficient and economical way to proceed. It will ensure that the corporate identity is taken into account as well as making our customers aware of issues relating to copyright, confidentiality and data protection. Finally, on time delivery of booked works of customers will be strictly adhered to.
5.4 MARKET STRATEGY
To retain our old customer and attract new ones, F. G. BAK Printing Press has decided to reduce its cost of printing at the early stage of production. It will strive to produce bright and quality printed works for our customers. Discounts will also be offered to our initial customers.
5.5 MARKET POSITIONING
The understated is how the firm will want the customers, competitors and general public to view it;
• As a printing press with the interest of its customer at heart, both on pricing and delivery.
• A trustworthy provider of consistent service with the best quality.
• As the best graphic designer.

PART VI
TECHNICAL ANALYSIS, MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION
6.0 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS
Digital printing has been the wave of the future for today’s printers, opening the door to a whole new way of doing business and giving the unique opportunity to save money on their printing projects in a way they never have before. Because offset printing projects are printed in such high volume, digital printing offers the printer the opportunity to print in a reduced quantity. Each has its own advantages, but F. G. BAK will utilize their advantages, offset printing will be used in large quantity printing while digital will be used in reduced publication.
6.1 SCHEDULE OF OPERATION
The customer places the order. The employee taking the order should get as much information from the customer as possible (filling out the job worksheet should be sufficient). Also, at the time the employee receives the order a reasonable time should be determined for completing the job. The customer should be notified of any changes occurring with the order.
The job ticket with all the information should be completed and documented in the job log book. The typesetter should be notified if typesetting is needed or the job should be taken directly to layout if all of the information is camera-ready. If the job is a repeal order, it should also be taken to layout.
The typesetter should typeset any required copy as specified by the customer. Questions or problems should be directed to the person who took the order. No work should leave the typesetter until it has been properly proofed by two or more employees.
Every time typesetting is done for a customer, the customer must see a proof before printing is done. Therefore, the client is to be called in for proofing and they should sign a proof slip after reviewing the completed work. A customer who is proofing the typesetting that we have done should be encouraged to check spelling, phone numbers, etc. for accuracy.
It is a good idea, and should be a regular practice, for an employee to go over the proofing process with the customer and review the printing specifications as they are printed on the job ticket. Take nothing for granted and never assume anything.
After the proofing and correction stage, the job should go to layout, where logos and art work are added, an original is made, and a plate is prepared for printing.
The plate is taken to a pressman. The pressman’s job is to pull the stock required for the job and then print it to the specifications on the ticket. Again, the pressman should not assume anything. If there is any question or doubt as to the specifications of printing the job, the pressman should take the questions to the shop foreman for clarification.
The job is printed and then goes to the bindery for any bindery work needed (i.e. collating, numbering, padding, cutting, gathering, packaging, etc.). When all bindery work is done and the job is complete, it should either be delivered or taken to the front office for pick-up.
The delivery person or the front office employee should get a signed delivery receipt and/or a signed in voice when the job is picked-up. The delivery receipt should then be placed in the job envelope and the envelope filed in the completed box. The invoice also has its assigned place and should be filed there without fail.
Personnel in each department should be aware of the delivery dates requested by customers. The work schedules should ensure that these dates are met. Should a job be held up in a department that will affect the delivery dates, the customer should be notified to help maintain proper public relations.
Also, it is the responsibility of the bookkeeper to make sure that all customers are invoiced weekly and those statements are in the mail at the proper time. Any time an invoice can be delivered with the job, it should be, as this will eliminate unnecessary postage and work load in the front office.
6.2 OWNER/MANAGER
F. G. BAK Printing Press is a partnership investment. It is jointly owned by five persons who developed the idea. They will serve also as the staff to the enterprise that manages the affairs of the printing press. One of the owners is a stockbroker and as such has enough basic knowledge of financial management which is expected help the firm utilize in running the printing press. Some people will be employed to help in the day-to-day management of the printing press.
Table 3: Management and Labour Compliments
s/n Positions No of staff Annual salary per staff (N) Total
1 Manager 1 180, 000 180, 000
2 Machines operators 3 120, 000 360, 000
3 Graphic designer 1 120, 000 120, 000
4 Cashier/secretary 1 96, 000 96, 000
5 Security 1 84, 000 84, 000
6 Add 5% fringe benefits 840, 000
50, 000
Grand total 7 902, 000

Below is the organizational structure of the business,
MANAGER

MACHINES OPERATORS GRAPHIC DESIGNER CASHIER/SECRETARY
SECURITY

PART VII
RISK ANALYSIS, CONTINGENCY PLAN AND EXIT STRATEGY

7.0 RISK ANALYSIS
This business about to be embarked on cannot be seen as a project devoid of risk but appropriate measures have been considered to mitigate these risks.
Table 4: Identified Risks and Measures to Mitigate them.
Identified risks Measures to mitigate it
Break-down of machines An expertise engineer will be employed
Initial start-up demand Aggressive promotion and advertisement
Electricity supply Standby generator will be provided

7.1 SWOT Analysis
A SWOT analysis carried out on the project reveals the following
7.1.1 STRENGTHS
• The project is situated at the commercial city, giving it the opportunity of having substantial demands.
• The project gives the business the opportunity of recovering its capital if it does not perform effectively by selling off the machines acquired.
• It does not waste fund and resources as when it is out of service everything comes to a stop.
• 90% of resources use in production is based on the customer’s advance payment. The business only needs to provide the machinery.
F. G. BAK will capitalize on its strengths to advance.
7.1.2 WEAKNESSES
• When there is no job the workers are ideal, yet they will receive their monthly salary.
• The prices of printing materials for production are not static.
• The proprietors have little or no experience in the area of printing press services.
The project will tackle its weakness by employing expertise in the business and also going for printing press training.
7.1.3 OPPORTUNITIES
The external environmental analysis may reveal certain new opportunities for profit and growth of the business. Some examples of such opportunities include:
• An unfulfilled customer need
• Arrival of new technologies
• Loosening of regulation

• 7.1.4 THREATS
Changes in the external environmental also may present threats to the firm. Some examples of such threats include:
• Shifts in consumer tastes away from the firm’s products
• New regulations
• Increased trade barriers
7.2 EXIT STRATEGY
No reason for exist have been envisaged, but in case of eventuality, the machineries will be sold off to recover the initial capital.

PART VIII
FINANCING PLAN
8.0 SUMMARY OF PROJECT COST
The total cost of the project is estimated around N1, 600, 000.00. N1, 100, 000.00 constitute the fixed capital and N500, 000.000 will be used for the working capital.
8.1 FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENTS
F. G. BAK Printing Press is situated at 69 New Market Road, Onitsha in a large store. The building is conducive to accommodate the type of machinery it will house.
Table 5: Fixed Capital Investment
s/n Detail Qty Unit price (N) Total amount (N)
1 Water Tank 1 50, 000 50, 000
2 Cord machine 1 400, 000 400, 000
3 201 impression machine 1 180, 000 180, 000
4 Generator 1 195, 000 195, 000
5 Polar machine 1 85, 000 85, 000
6 printer 1 20, 000 20, 000
7 Desktop Computer 1 75, 000 75, 000
8 Platographic machine 1 95, 000 95, 000
Grand total 1, 100, 000

8.2 UTILITIES
The project will be making use of electricity and water in the course of production.
Table 6: Expenses on Utilities Projected
Utilities Year 1 (N) Year 2 (N) Year 3 (N)
Electricity
Water 12, 000
12, 000 12, 240
12, 240 12, 480
12, 480
Total 24, 000 24, 480 24, 960

8.3 OTHER EXPENSES
There are other expenses expected to be incurred during production. These are stated below;
Table 7: Other Operating Expenses
Type of expenses Year 1 (N) Year 2(N) Year 3(N)
Machine maintenance 90, 000 94, 500 99, 000
Advertisement 70, 000 73, 500 77, 000
Ink 50, 000 52, 500 55, 000
Re-fuelling (both diesel and kerosene)
75, 000
78, 750
82, 500
Miscellaneous 35, 000 36, 750 38, 500
Total 320, 000 336, 000 352, 000

8.4 TOTAL REQUIRED INVESTMENT OUTLAY (REQUIRED START-UP CAPITAL)
Table 8: Total Start-up Capital Required
s/n Capital items Amount (N)
1 Machinery, equipment and others 1, 100, 000
2 Working capital requirement 500, 000
Total 1, 600, 000

8.5 FINANCING PLAN
In order to carry out this project, plans on how to raise the venture capital are stated below.
Table 9: Financing Plan
Source Amount (N)
Equity contribution
Bank loan 100, 000
1, 500, 000
Total 1, 600, 000

8.6 LOAN REPAYMENT SCHEDULE AND INTEREST PAID
Normally, the bank does not give out its money for nothing. Therefore the money borrowed should attract 10% interest within the space of 3years. The mode of repayment is stated below.

Table 10: Interest and Repayment Schedule
Year Loan Repayment (N) Interests (N) Loan balance (N)
1 1, 500, 000 Nil 51, 000 1, 500, 000
2 1, 500, 000 400, 000 124, 000 1, 100, 000
3 1, 100, 000 1, 100, 000 26, 000 Nil

It is worthy of note that a month moratorium period is required of the loan. Productions start by the 9th month, therefore, interest will be starting from the 9th month.
8.7 DEPRECIATION
The annual depreciation is calculated using the straight line method.
Table 11: Schedule of Annual Depreciation
s/n Capital items LS IV SV Depreciation
1 Cord machines 10 400,000 250, 000 25, 500
2 201 impression machine 10 180, 000 110, 000 11, 000
3 Generator 10 195, 000 140, 000 14, 000
4 Platographic machine 5 75, 000 70, 000 15, 000
5 Printer 5 20, 000 10, 000 2, 000
6 Polar machine 10 85, 000 45, 000 4, 500
7 Computer 5 75, 000 35, 000 7, 000
8 Water tank 5 50, 000 45, 000 9, 000
Total 89, 500

8.8 FORECAST OF PROFIT AND LOSS
Table 12: Forecast of Profit and Loss
Particulars Year 1 (N) Year 2 (N) Year 3 (N)
Expected sales
Less 1% discount 1, 718, 500
18, 000 2, 576, 000
26, 000 5, 162, 500
52, 000
Net sales 1, 700, 500 2, 550, 000 5, 110, 500
Expenses
Lease building
Cost of printing
Utilities
Other expenses
Salaries and wages
90, 000
450, 000
24, 000
320, 000
902, 000

90, 000
505, 000
24, 480
336, 000
902, 000
90, 000
550, 000
24, 960
325, 000
902, 000
Total expenses 1, 789, 000 1, 857, 480 1, 918, 960
Profit before int. &tax
Less interest (85, 000)

51, 000 692, 520

124, 000 3, 191, 540

26, 000
Profit before tax
Less 10% tax (34,500)
Nil 568, 520
56, 852 3, 165, 540
316, 554
Profit after tax
Less depreciation (34, 500)
20, 000 511, 668
20, 000 2, 848, 986
Net profit (54, 500) 491, 668 2, 848, 986
Retained earnings (54, 500) 491, 668 2, 000, 000
Dividend Nil Nil 848, 986

8.9 CASH FLOW PROJECTION
Year 0 (N) Year 1 (N) Year 2 (N) Year 3 (N)
Cash in
Equity
Bank loan
Net profit
Depreciation
100, 000
1, 500, 000

(54, 500)
20, 000

491, 668
20, 000

2, 848, 986
Total cash in 1, 600, 000 (34, 500) 511, 668 2, 848, 986
Cash out
Equipment & others
Working capital
Increase/decrease in cash
Loan repayment
Dividend
Increase/decrease in cash
1, 100, 000
500, 000

15, 000

183, 000
400, 000

356, 000
1, 100, 000
848, 986
Total cash out 1, 600, 000 (34, 500) 511, 668 2, 868, 986
Opening balance
Increase/decrease in cash
Closing balance Nil
Nil

Nil Nil
(49, 500)
(49, 500) (49 500)
328, 668
279, 168 279, 168
2, 512, 986
2, 792, 154

8.10 BALANCE SHEET PROJECTION
Year 0 (N) Year1 (N) Year 2 (N) Year 3 (N)
Fixed assets:
Machinery, equity & others
Less com. dep.
1, 100, 000
1, 100, 000

20, 000
1, 100, 000

40, 000
1, 100, 000

60, 000
Net fixed assets 1, 100, 000 1, 080, 000 1, 060, 000 1, 040, 000
Current assets
Stock of material
Operating bal B/F
Debtors

Cash in hand/bank
394, 000

200, 000
394, 000

178, 000
(13, 000)
420, 500
(49, 500)

480, 000
128, 000 490, 000
279, 168

50, 000
1, 900, 000

Total of current assets 594, 000 559, 000 979, 000 2, 719, 168
Total assets 1, 694, 000 1, 639, 000 2, 039, 000 3, 759, 168
Long term liabilities:
Capital (equity)
Retained earnings
Bank loan
100, 000

1, 500, 000
100, 000
(54, 500)
1, 500, 000
100, 000
491, 668
1, 100, 000
100, 000
2, 000, 000
Nil
Total of long term liabilities
1, 600, 000
1, 545, 500
1, 691, 668
2, 100, 000
Current liabilities
Loan repayment
Creditors
Dividend

94, 000

94, 000
400, 000
347, 332
1, 100, 000
1, 659, 168
848, 986
Total of current liabilities 94, 000 94, 000 747, 332 3, 608, 154
Total of liabilities 1, 694, 000 1, 639, 000 2, 039, 000 3, 759, 168

PART IX
FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
This project assumes full publication at least 9 months after start-up
9.0 PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
The vital ratios of the first three years are demonstrated below.
Year 1
(4 months) Year 2 Year 3

Profit after tax (34, 500) 511, 668 2, 848, 986
% return on turn over N/A 26.7 32.51
% return on equity N/A 101.2 76.6
% return on investment N/A 34.8 87.33

9.1 CASH FLOW PROJECTION
Precisely by the second year of service the business would have fully advanced.
The cash flow position is displayed below.

Year 2 Year 3
279, 168 2, 792, 154
Basically, it illustrates that the business will be generating funds to carry out its necessary obligations.
9.2 PROJECTED BALANCE SHEET
Year of operation Year 1(N) Year 2(N) Year 2 (N)
Shareholders fund

PART X
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS AND CONCLUSION
10.0 ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION
Not only will this create wealth and benefits to it promoters, there is an angel from which it will provide jobs to alleviate unemployment rate it the country. From our study and analysis of the findings made, the project will fetch its entrepreneurs good financial resources.
10.1 C0MMERCIAL VIABILITY
The project’s commercial viability is very obvious in such a way it can be understood from its projections, an impressive publications, profits and cash flow positions.
10.2 CONCLUSION
Through its findings this project is highly recommended for implementation.

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